Goto Section: 2.1 | 2.100 | Table of Contents

FCC 2.1
Revised as of November 23, 2020
Goto Year:2020 | 2022
  §  2.1   Terms and definitions.

   (a) Where a term or definition appears in this part of the Commission's
   Rules, it shall be the definitive term or definition and shall prevail
   throughout the Commission's Rules.

   (b) The source of each definition is indicated as follows:

   CS—Annex to the Constitution of the International Telecommunication
   Union (ITU)

   CV—Annex to the Convention of the ITU

   FCC—Federal Communications Commission

   RR—ITU Radio Regulations

   (c) The following terms and definitions are issued:

   Accepted Interference.1 Interference at a higher level than defined as
   permissible interference and which has been agreed upon between two or
   more administrations without prejudice to other administrations. (RR)

   1The terms permissible interference and accepted interference are used
   in the coordination of frequency assignments between administrations.

   Active Satellite. A satellite carrying a station intended to transmit
   or retransmit radiocommunication signals. (RR)

   Active Sensor. A measuring instrument in the earth
   exploration-satellite service or in the space research service by means
   of which information is obtained by transmission and reception of radio
   waves. (RR)

   Adaptive System. A radiocommunication system which varies its radio
   characteristics according to channel quality. (RR)

   Administration. Any governmental department or service responsible for
   discharging the obligations undertaken in the Constitution of the
   International Telecommunication Union, in the Convention of the
   International Telecommunication Union and in the Administrative
   Regulations. (CS)

   Aeronautical Earth Station. An Earth station in the fixed-satellite
   service, or, in some cases, in the aeronautical mobile-satellite
   service, located at a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder
   link for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Aeronautical Fixed Service. A radiocommunication service between
   specified fixed points provided primarily for the safety of air
   navigation and for the regular, efficient and economical operation of
   air transport. (RR)

   Aeronautical Fixed Station. A station in the aeronautical fixed
   service. (RR)

   Aeronautical Mobile Off-Route (OR) Service. An aeronautical mobile
   service intended for communications, including those relating to flight
   coordination, primarily outside national or international civil air
   routes. (RR)

   Aeronautical Mobile Route (R) Service. An aeronautical mobile service
   reserved for communications relating to safety and regularity of
   flight, primarily along national or international civil air routes.
   (RR)

   Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite Off-Route (OR) Service. An aeronautical
   mobile-satellite service intended for communications, including those
   relating to flight coordination, primarily outside national and
   international civil air routes. (RR)

   Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite Route (R) Service. An aeronautical
   mobile-satellite service reserved for communications relating to safety
   and regularity of flights, primarily along national or international
   civil air routes. (RR)

   Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite Service. A mobile-satellite service in
   which mobile earth stations are located on board aircraft; survival
   craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations
   may also participate in this service. (RR)

   Aeronautical Mobile Service. A mobile service between aeronautical
   stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations, in which
   survival craft stations may participate; emergency position-indicating
   radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service on designated
   distress and emergency frequencies. (RR)

   Aeronautical Radionavigation-Satellite Service. A
   radionavigation-satellite service in which earth stations are located
   on board aircraft. (RR)

   Aeronautical Radionavigation Service. A radio-navigation service
   intended for the benefit and for the safe operation of aircraft. (RR)

   Aeronautical Station. A land station in the aeronautical mobile
   service.

   Note: In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for
   example, on board ship or on a platform at sea. (RR)

   Aircraft Earth Station. A mobile earth station in the aeronautical
   mobile-satellite service located on board an aircraft. (RR)

   Aircraft Station. A mobile station in the aeronautical mobile service,
   other than a survival craft station, located on board an aircraft. (RR)

   Allocation (of a frequency band). Entry in the Table of Frequency
   Allocations of a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one
   or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services or the radio
   astronomy service under specified conditions. This term shall also be
   applied to the frequency band concerned. (RR)

   Allotment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel). Entry of a
   designated frequency channel in an agreed plan, adopted by a competent
   conference, for use by one or more administrations for a terrestrial or
   space radiocommunication service in one or more identified countries or
   geographical area and under specified conditions. (RR)

   Altitude of the Apogee or Perigee. The altitude of the apogee or
   perigee above a specified reference surface serving to represent the
   surface of the Earth. (RR)

   Amateur-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service using space
   stations on earth satellites for the same purposes as those of the
   amateur service. (RR)

   Amateur Service. A radiocommunication service for the purpose of
   self-training, intercommunication and technical investigations carried
   out by amateurs, that is, by duly authorized persons interested in
   radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary
   interest. (RR)

   Amateur Station. A station in the amateur service. (RR)

   Assigned Frequency. The centre of the frequency band assigned to a
   station. (RR)

   Assigned Frequency Band. The frequency band within which the emission
   of a station is authorized; the width of the band equals the necessary
   bandwidth plus twice the absolute value of the frequency tolerance.
   Where space stations are concerned, the assigned frequency band
   includes twice the maximum Doppler shift that may occur in relation to
   any point of the Earth's surface. (RR)

   Assignment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel).
   Authorization given by an administration for a radio station to use a
   radio frequency or radio frequency channel under specified conditions.
   (RR)

   Base Earth Station. An earth station in the fixed-satellite service or,
   in some cases, in the land mobile-satellite service, located at a
   specified fixed point or within a specified area on land to provide a
   feeder link for the land mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Base Station. A land station in the land mobile service. (RR)

   Broadcasting-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service in which
   signals transmitted or retransmitted by space stations are intended for
   direct reception by the general public.

   Note: In the broadcasting-satellite service, the term direct reception
   shall encompass both individual reception and community reception. (RR)

   Broadcasting Service. A radiocommunication service in which the
   transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public.
   This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions
   or other types of transmission. (CS)

   Broadcasting Station. A station in the broadcasting service. (RR)

   Carrier Power (of a radio transmitter). The average power supplied to
   the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one radio
   frequency cycle taken under the condition of no modulation. (RR)

   Characteristic Frequency. A frequency which can be easily identified
   and measured in a given emission.

   Note: A carrier frequency may, for example, be designated as the
   characteristic frequency. (RR)

   Class of Emission. The set of characteristics of an emission,
   designated by standard symbols, e.g., type of modulation, modulating
   signal, type of information to be transmitted, and also if appropriate,
   any additional signal characteristics. (RR)

   Coast Earth Station. An earth station in the fixed-satellite service
   or, in some cases, in the maritime mobile-satellite service, located at
   a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder link for the
   maritime mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Coast Station. A land station in the maritime mobile service. (RR)

   Community Reception (in the broadcasting-satellite service). The
   reception of emissions from a space station in the
   broadcasting-satellite service by receiving equipment, which in some
   cases may be complex and have antennae larger than those for individual
   reception, and intended for use: (1) by a group of the general public
   at one location; or (2) through a distribution system covering a
   limited area. (RR)

   Conterminous United States. The contiguous 48 States and the District
   of Columbia. (FCC)

   Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Time scale, based on the second (SI),
   as defined in Recommendation ITU-R TF.460-6.

   Note: For most practical purposes associated with the ITU Radio
   Regulations, UTC is equivalent to mean solar time at the prime meridian
   (0° longitude), formerly expressed in GMT. (RR)

   Coordination Area. When determining the need for coordination, the area
   surrounding an earth station sharing the same frequency band with
   terrestrial stations, or surrounding a transmitting earth station
   sharing the same bidirectionally allocated frequency band with
   receiving earth stations, beyond which the level of permissible
   interference will not be exceeded and coordination is therefore not
   required. (RR)

   Coordination Contour. The line enclosing the coordination area. (RR)

   Coordination Distance. When determining the need for coordination, the
   distance on a given azimuth from an earth station sharing the same
   frequency band with terrestrial stations, or from a transmitting earth
   station sharing the same bidirectionally allocated frequency band with
   receiving earth stations, beyond which the level of permissible
   interference will not be exceeded and coordination is therefore not
   required. (RR)

   Deep Space. Space at distance from the Earth equal to, or greater than,
   2 × 106 kilometers. (RR)

   Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) Station. A differential
   RNSS station for specific augmentation of GPS.

   Differential Radionavigation Satellite Service (Differential RNSS)
   Station. A station used for the transmission of differential correction
   data and related information (such as ionospheric data and RNSS
   satellite integrity information) as an augmentation to an RNSS system
   for the purpose of improved navigation accuracy.

   Direct Sequence Systems. A spread spectrum system in which the carrier
   has been modulated by a high speed spreading code and an information
   data stream. The high speed code sequence dominates the “modulating
   function” and is the direct cause of the wide spreading of the
   transmitted signal.

   Duplex Operation. Operating method in which transmission is possible
   simultaneously in both directions of a telecommunication channel.3 (RR)

   3In general, duplex operation and semi-duplex operation require two
   frequencies in radiocommunication; simplex operation may use either one
   or two.

   Earth Exploration-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service
   between earth stations and one or more space stations, which may
   include links between space stations, in which:

   (1) Information relating to the characteristics of the Earth and its
   natural phenomena, including data relating to the state of the
   environment, is obtained from active sensors or passive sensors on
   Earth satellites;

   (2) Similar information is collected from airborne or Earth-based
   platforms;

   (3) Such information may be distributed to earth stations within the
   system concerned; and

   (4) Platform interrogation may be included. This service may also
   include feeder links necessary for its operation. (RR)

   Earth Station. A station located either on the earth's surface or
   within the major portion of earth's atmosphere and intended for
   communication:

   (1) With one or more space stations; or

   (2) With one or more stations of the same kind by means of one or more
   reflecting satellites or other objects in space. (RR)

   Effective Radiated Power (e.r.p) (in a given direction). The product of
   the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a half-wave
   dipole in a given direction. (RR)

   Emergency Position-Indicating Radiobeacon Station. A station in the
   mobile service the emissions of which are intended to facilitate search
   and rescue operations. (RR)

   Emission. Radiation produced, or the production of radiation, by a
   radio transmitting station.

   Note: For example, the energy radiated by the local oscillator of a
   radio receiver would not be an emission but a radiation. (RR)

   End Product. A completed electronic device that has received all
   requisite FCC approvals and is suitable for marketing.

   Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (e.i.r.p.). The product of the
   power supplied to the antenna and the antenna gain in a given direction
   relative to an isotropic antenna (absolute or isotropic gain). (RR)

   Equivalent Monopole Radiated Power (e.m.r.p.) (in a given direction).
   The product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative
   to a short vertical antenna in a given direction. (RR)

   Equivalent Satellite Link Noise Temperature. The noise temperature
   referred to the output of the receiving antenna of the earth station
   corresponding to the radio-frequency noise power which produces the
   total observed noise at the output of the satellite link excluding the
   noise due to interference coming from satellite links using other
   satellites and from terrestrial systems. (RR)

   Evaluation Kit. An assembly of components, subassemblies, or circuitry,
   including software, created by or for a component maker, system
   integrator, or product developer for the sole purpose of facilitating:
   (i) End product developer evaluation of all or some of such components,
   subassemblies, or circuitry, or (ii) the development of software to be
   used in an end product.

   Experimental Station. A station utilizing radio waves in experiments
   with a view to the development of science or technique.

   Note: This definition does not include amateur stations. (RR)

   Facsimile. A form of telegraphy for the transmission of fixed images,
   with or without half-tones, with a view to their reproduction in a
   permanent form. (RR)

   Feeder Link. A radio link from an earth station at a given location to
   a space station, or vice versa, conveying information for a space
   radiocommunication service other than for the fixed-satellite service.
   The given location may be at a specified fixed point, or at any fixed
   point within specified areas. (RR)

   Fixed-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service between earth
   stations at given positions, when one or more satellites are used; the
   given position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within
   specified areas; in some cases this service includes
   satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be operated in the
   inter-satellite service; the fixed-satellite service may also include
   feeder links for other space radiocommunication services. (RR)

   Fixed Service. A radiocommunication service between specified fixed
   points. (RR)

   Fixed Station. A station in the fixed service. (RR)

   Frequency Assignment Subcommittee (FAS). A subcommittee of the
   Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC) within NTIA that
   develops and executes procedures for the assignment and coordination of
   Federal radio frequencies. (FCC)

   Frequency Hopping Systems. A spread spectrum system in which the
   carrier is modulated with the coded information in a conventional
   manner causing a conventional spreading of the RF energy about the
   frequency carrier. The frequency of the carrier is not fixed but
   changes at fixed intervals under the direction of a coded sequence. The
   wide RF bandwidth needed by such a system is not required by spreading
   of the RF energy about the carrier but rather to accommodate the range
   of frequencies to which the carrier frequency can hop. The test of a
   frequency hopping system is that the near term distribution of hops
   appears random, the long term distribution appears evenly distributed
   over the hop set, and sequential hops are randomly distributed in both
   direction and magnitude of change in the hop set.

   Frequency-Shift Telegraphy. Telegraphy by frequency modulation in which
   the telegraph signal shifts the frequency of the carrier between
   predetermined values. (RR)

   Frequency Tolerance. The maximum permissible departure by the centre
   frequency of the frequency band occupied by an emission from the
   assigned frequency or, by the characteristic frequency of an emission
   from the reference frequency.

   Note: The frequency tolerance is expressed in parts in 106 or in hertz.
   (RR)

   Full Carrier Single-Sideband Emission. A single-sideband emission
   without suppression of the carrier. (RR)

   Gain of an Antenna. The ratio, usually expressed in decibels, of the
   power required at the input of a loss free reference antenna to the
   power supplied to the input of the given antenna to produce, in a given
   direction, the same field strength or the same power flux-density at
   the same distance. When not specified otherwise, the gain refers to the
   direction of maximum radiation. The gain may be considered for a
   specified polarization.

   Note: Depending on the choice of the reference antenna a distinction is
   made between:

   (1) Absolute or isotropic gain (Gi), when the reference antenna is an
   isotropic antenna isolated in space;

   (2) Gain relative to a half-wave dipole (Gd), when the reference
   antenna is a half-wave dipole isolated in space whose equatorial plane
   contains the given direction;

   (3) Gain relative to a short vertical antenna (Gv), when the reference
   antenna is a linear conductor, much shorter than one quarter of the
   wavelength, normal to the surface of a perfectly conducting plane which
   contains the given direction. (RR)

   General Purpose Mobile Service. A mobile service that includes all
   mobile communications uses including those within the Aeronautical
   Mobile, Land Mobile, or the Maritime Mobile Services.

   Geostationary Satellite. A geosynchronous satellite whose circular and
   direct orbit lies in the plane of the Earth's equator and which thus
   remains fixed relative to the Earth; by extension, a geosynchronous
   satellite which remains approximately fixed relative to the Earth. (RR)

   Geostationary Satellite Orbit. The orbit in which a satellite must be
   placed to be a geostationary satellite. (RR)

   Geosynchronous Satellite. An Earth satellite whose period of revolution
   is equal to the period of rotation of the Earth about its axis. (RR)

   Government Master File (GMF). NTIA's database of Federal assignments.
   It also includes non-Federal authorizations coordinated with NTIA for
   the bands allocated for shared Federal and non-Federal use. (FCC)

   Harmful Interference. Interference which endangers the functioning of a
   radionavigation service or of other safety services or seriously
   degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication
   service operating in accordance with [the ITU] Radio Regulations. (CS)

   High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS). A station located on an object
   at an altitude of 20 to 50 km and at a specified, nominal, fixed point
   relative to the Earth. (RR)

   Hybrid Spread Spectrum Systems. Hybrid spread spectrum systems are
   those which use combinations of two or more types of direct sequence,
   frequency hopping, time hopping and pulsed FM modulation in order to
   achieve their wide occupied bandwidths.

   Inclination of an Orbit (of an earth satellite). The angle determined
   by the plane containing the orbit and the plane of the Earth's equator
   measured in degrees between 0° and 180° and in counter-clockwise
   direction from the Earth's equatorial plane at the ascending node of
   the orbit. (RR)

   Individual Reception (in the broadcasting-satellite service). The
   reception of emissions from a space station in the
   broadcasting-satellite service by simple domestic installations and in
   particular those possessing small antennae. (RR)

   Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) (of radio frequency energy)
   Applications. Operation of equipment or appliances designed to generate
   and use locally radio-frequency energy for industrial, scientific,
   medical, domestic or similar purposes, excluding applications in the
   field of telecommunications. (RR)

   Instrument Landing System (ILS). A radionavigation system which
   provides aircraft with horizontal and vertical guidance just before and
   during landing and, at certain fixed points, indicates the distance to
   the reference point of landing. (RR)

   Instrument Landing System Glide Path. A system of vertical guidance
   embodied in the instrument landing system which indicates the vertical
   deviation of the aircraft from its optimum path of descent. (RR)

   Instrument Landing System Localizer. A system of horizontal guidance
   embodied in the instrument landing system which indicates the
   horizontal deviation of the aircraft from its optimum path of descent
   along the axis of the runway. (RR)

   Insular area. A jurisdiction that is neither a part of one of the
   several States nor a Federal district. The U.S. insular areas are
   listed in 47 CFR 2.105(a) at notes 2 and 3. (FCC)

   Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC). A committee of the
   Federal departments, agencies, and administrations that advises NTIA in
   assigning frequencies to Federal radio stations and in developing and
   executing policies, programs, procedures, and technical criteria
   pertaining to the allocation, management, and use of the spectrum. The
   IRAC consists of a main committee, subcommittees, and several ad hoc
   groups that consider various aspects of spectrum management policy. The
   FCC serves as a member of the Frequency Assignment Subcommittee and as
   Liaison Representative on the main committee, all other subcommittees
   and ad hoc groups. (FCC)

   Interference. The effect of unwanted energy due to one or a combination
   of emissions, radiations, or inductions upon reception in a
   radiocommunication system, manifested by any performance degradation,
   misinterpretation, or loss of information which could be extracted in
   the absence of such unwanted energy. (RR)

   International Telecommunication Union (ITU). An international
   organization within the United Nations System where governments and the
   private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services. The ITU
   is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and its internet address is
   www.itu.int. (FCC)

   Inter-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service providing links
   between artificial satellites. (RR)

   Ionospheric Scatter. The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a
   result of irregularities or discontinuities in the ionization of the
   ionosphere. (RR)

   Land Earth Station. An earth station in the fixed-satellite service or,
   in some cases, in the mobile-satellite service, located at a specified
   fixed point or within a specified area on land to provide a feeder link
   for the mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Land Mobile Earth Station. A mobile earth station in the land
   mobile-satellite service capable of surface movement within the
   geographical limits of a country or continent. (RR)

   Land Mobile-Satellite Service. A mobile-satellite service in which
   mobile earth stations are located on land. (RR)

   Land Mobile Service. A mobile service between base stations and land
   mobile stations, or between land mobile stations. (RR)

   Land Mobile Station. A mobile station in the land mobile service
   capable of surface movement within the geographical limits of a country
   or continent.

   Land Station. A station in the mobile service not intended to be used
   while in motion. (RR)

   Left-Hand (or Anti-Clockwise) Polarized Wave. An elliptically or
   circularly-polarized wave, in fixed plane, normal to the direction of
   propagation, whilst looking in the direction of propagation, rotates
   with time in a left hand or anti-clockwise direction. (RR)

   Line A. Begins at Aberdeen, Washington running by great circle arc to
   the intersection of 48° N., 120° W., thence along parallel 48° N., to
   the intersection of 95° W., thence by great circle arc through the
   southernmost point of Duluth, Minn., thence by great circle arc to 45°
   N., 85° W., thence southward along meridian 85° W., to its intersection
   with parallel 41° N., thence along parallel 41° N., to its intersection
   with meridian 82° W., thence by great circle arc through the
   southernmost point of Bangor, Maine, thence by great circle arc through
   the southernmost point of Searsport, Maine, at which point it
   terminates. (FCC)

   Line B. Begins at Tofino, B.C., running by great circle arc to the
   intersection of 50° N., 125° W., thence along parallel 50° N., to the
   intersection of 90° W., thence by great circle arc to the intersection
   of 45° N., 79°30′ W., thence by great circle arc through the
   northernmost point of Drummondville, Quebec (Lat. 45°52′ N., Long
   72°30′ W.), thence by great circle arc to 48°30′ N., 70° W., thence by
   great circle arc through the northernmost point of Compbellton, N.B.,
   thence by great circle are through the northernmost point of Liverpool,
   N.S., at which point it terminates. (FCC)

   Line C. Begins at the intersection of 70° N., 144° W., thence by great
   circle arc to the intersection of 60° N., 143° W., thence by great
   circle arc so as to include all of the Alaskan Panhandle. (FCC)

   Line D. Begins at the intersection of 70° N., 138° W., thence by great
   circle arc to the intersection of 61°20′ N., 139° W. (Burwash Landing),
   thence by great circle arc to the intersection of 60°45′ N., 135° W.,
   thence by great circle arc to the intersection of 56° N., 128° W.,
   thence south along 128° meridian to Lat. 55° N., thence by great circle
   arc to the intersection of 54° N., 130° W., thence by great circle arc
   to Port Clements, thence to the Pacific Ocean where it ends. (FCC)

   Maritime Mobile-Satellite Service. A mobile-satellite service in which
   mobile earth stations are located on board ships; survival craft
   stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may
   also participate in this service. (RR)

   Maritime Mobile Service. A mobile service between coast stations and
   ship stations, or between ship stations, or between associated on-board
   communication stations; survival craft stations and emergency
   position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this
   service. (RR)

   Maritime Radionavigation-Satellite Service. A radionavigation-satellite
   service in which earth stations are located on board ships. (RR)

   Maritime Radionavigation Service. A radionavigation service intended
   for the benefit and for the safe operation of ships. (RR)

   Marker Beacon. A transmitter in the aeronautical radionavigation
   service which radiates vertically a distinctive pattern for providing
   position information to aircraft. (RR)

   Mean Power (of a radio transmitter). The average power supplied to the
   antenna transmission line by a transmitter during an interval of time
   sufficiently long compared with the lowest frequency encountered in the
   modulation taken under normal operating conditions. (RR)

   Meteorological Aids Service. A radiocommunication service used for
   meteorological, including hydrological, observation and exploration.
   (RR)

   Meteorological-Satellite Service. An earth exploration-satellite
   service for meteorological purposes. (RR)

   Mobile Earth Station. An earth station in the mobile-satellite service
   intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified
   points. (RR)

   Mobile-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service:

   (1) Between mobile earth stations and one or more space stations, or
   between space stations used by this service; or

   (2) Between mobile earth stations by means of one or more space
   stations.

   Note: This service may also include feeder links necessary for its
   operation. (RR)

   Mobile Service. A radiocommunication service between mobile and land
   stations, or between mobile stations. (CV)

   Mobile Station. A station in the mobile service intended to be used
   while in motion or during halts at unspecified points. (RR)

   Multi-Satellite Link. A radio link between a transmitting earth station
   and a receiving earth station through two or more satellites, without
   any intermediate earth station.

   Note: A multisatellite link comprises one up-link, one or more
   satellite-to-satellite links and one down-link. (RR)

   National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). An
   agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the
   President's principal advisor on telecommunications and information
   policy issues. NTIA manages Federal use of the radio spectrum and
   coordinates Federal use with the FCC. NTIA sets forth regulations for
   Federal use of the radio spectrum within its Manual of Regulations &
   Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management (NTIA Manual). (FCC)

   Necessary Bandwidth. For a given class of emission, the width of the
   frequency band which is just sufficient to ensure the transmission of
   information at the rate and with the quality required under specified
   conditions. (RR)

   Non-Voice, Non-Geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service. A
   mobile-satellite service reserved for use by non-geostationary
   satellites in the provision of non-voice communications which may
   include satellite links between land earth stations at fixed locations.

   Occupied Bandwidth. The width of a frequency band such that, below the
   lower and above the upper frequency limits, the mean powers emitted are
   each equal to a specified percentage β/2 of the total mean power of a
   given emission.

   Note: Unless otherwise specified in an ITU-R Recommendation for the
   appropriate class of emission, the value of β/2 should be taken as
   0.5%. (RR).

   On-Board Communication Station. A low-powered mobile station in the
   maritime mobile service intended for use for internal communications on
   board a ship, or between a ship and its lifeboats and life-rafts during
   lifeboat drills or operations, or for communication within a group of
   vessels being towed or pushed, as well as for line handling and mooring
   instructions. (RR)

   Orbit. The path, relative to a specified frame of reference, described
   by the centre of mass of a satellite or other object in space subjected
   primarily to natural forces, mainly the force of gravity. (RR)

   Out-of-band domain (of an emission). The frequency range, immediately
   outside the necessary bandwidth but excluding the spurious domain, in
   which out-of-band emissions generally predominate. Out-of-band
   emissions, defined based on their source, occur in the out-of-band
   domain and, to a lesser extent, in the spurious domain. Spurious
   emissions likewise may occur in the out-of-band domain as well as in
   the spurious domain. (RR)

   Out-of-band Emission. Emission on a frequency or frequencies
   immediately outside the necessary bandwidth which results from the
   modulation process, but excluding spurious emissions. (RR)

   Passive Sensor. A measuring instrument in the earth
   exploration-satellite service or in the space research service by means
   of which information is obtained by reception of radio waves of natural
   origin. (RR)

   Peak Envelope Power (of a radio transmitter). The average power
   supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during one
   radio frequency cycle at the crest of the modulation envelope taken
   under normal operating conditions. (RR)

   Period (of a satellite). The time elapsing between two consecutive
   passages of a satellite through a characteristic point on its orbit.
   (RR)

   Permissible Interference.3 Observed or predicted interference which
   complies with quantitative interference and sharing criteria contained
   in these [ITU Radio] Regulations or in ITU-R Recommendations or in
   special agreements as provided for in these Regulations. (RR)

   3See footnote under Accepted Interference.

   Port Operations Service. A maritime mobile service in or near a port,
   between coast stations and ship stations, or between ship stations, in
   which messages are restricted to those relating to the operational
   handling, the movement and the safty of ships and, in emergency, to the
   safety of persons.

   Note: Messages which are of a public correspondence nature shall be
   excluded from this service. (RR)

   Port Station. A coast station in the port operations service. (RR)

   Power. Whenever the power of a radio transmitter, etc. is referred to
   it shall be expressed in one of the following forms, according to the
   class of emission, using the arbitrary symbols indicated:

   (1) Peak envelope power (PX or pX);

   (2) Mean power (PY or pY);

   (3) Carrier power (PZ or pZ).

   Note 1: For different classes of emission, the relationships between
   peak envelope power, mean power and carrier power, under the conditions
   of normal operation and of no modulation, are contained in ITU-R
   Recommendations which may be used as a guide.

   Note 2: For use in formulae, the symbol p denotes power expressed in
   watts and the symbol P denotes power expressed in decibels relative to
   a reference level. (RR)

   Primary Radar. A radiodetermination system based on the comparison of
   reference signals with radio signals reflected from the position to be
   determined. (RR)

   Protection Ratio. The minimum value of the wanted-to-unwanted signal
   ratio, usually expressed in decibels, at the receiver input determined
   under specified conditions such that a specified reception quality of
   the wanted signal is achieved at the receiver output. (RR)

   Public Correspondence. Any telecommunication which the offices and
   stations must, by reason of their being at the disposal of the public,
   accept for transmission. (CS)

   Pulsed FM Systems. A pulsed FM system is a spread spectrum system in
   which a RF carrier is modulated with a fixed period and fixed duty
   cycle sequence. At the beginning of each transmitted pulse, the carrier
   frequency is frequency modulated causing an additional spreading of the
   carrier. The pattern of the frequency modulation will depend upon the
   spreading function which is chosen. In some systems the spreading
   function is a linear FM chirp sweep, sweeping either up or down in
   frequency.

   Radar. A radiodetermination system based on the comparison of reference
   signals with radio signals reflected, or retrainsmitted, from the
   position to be determined. (RR)

   Radar Beacon (RACON). A transmitter-receiver associated with a fixed
   navigational mark which, when triggered by a radar, automatically
   returns a distinctive signal which can appear on the display of the
   triggering radar, providing range, bearing and identification
   information. (RR)

   Radiation. The outward flow of energy from any source in the form of
   radio waves. (RR)

   Radio. A general term applied to the use of radio waves. (RR)

   Radio Altimeter. Radionavigation equipment, on board an aircraft or
   spacecraft or the spacecraft above the Earth's surface or another
   surface. (RR)

   Radio Astronomy. Astronomy based on the reception of radio waves of
   cosmic origin. (RR)

   Radio Astronomy Service. A service involving the use of radio
   astronomy. (RR)

   Radio Astronomy Station. A station in the radio astronomy service. (RR)

   Radiobeacon Station. A station in the radionavigation service the
   emissions of which are intended to enable a mobile station to determine
   its bearing or direction in relation to radiobeacon station. (RR)

   Radiocommunication. Telecommunication by means of radio waves. (CS)
   (CV)

   Radiocommunication Service. A service as defined in this Section
   involving the transmission, emission and/or reception of radio waves
   for specific telecommunication purposes.

   Note: In these [international] Radio Regulations, unless otherwise
   stated, any radiocommunication service relates to terrestrial
   radiocommunication. (RR)

   Radiodetermination. The determination of the position, velocity and/or
   other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of information
   relating to these parameters, by means of the propagation properties of
   radio waves. (RR)

   Radiodetermination-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service for
   the purpose of radiodetermination involving the use or one of more
   space stations. This service may also include feeder links necessary
   for its own operation. (RR)

   Radiodetermination Service. A radiocommunication service for the
   purpose of radiodetermination. (RR)

   Radiodetermination Station. A station in the radiodetermination
   serviice. (RR)

   Radio Direction-Finding. Radiodetermination using the reception of
   radio waves for the purpose of determining the direction of a station
   or object. (RR)

   Radio Direction-Finding Station. A radiodetermination station using
   radio direction-finding. (RR)

   Radiolocation. Radiodetermination used for purposes other than those of
   radionavigation. (RR)

   Radiolocation Land Station. A station in the radiolocation service not
   intended to be used while in motion. (RR)

   Radiolocation Mobile Station. A station in the radiolocation service
   intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified
   points. (RR)

   Radiolocation Service. A radiodetermination service for the purpose of
   radiolocation. (RR)

   Radionavigation. Radiodetermination used for the purposes of
   navigation, including obstruction warning.

   Radionavigation Land Station. A station in the radionavigation service
   not intended to be used while in motion. (RR)

   Radionavigation Mobile Station. A station in the radionavigation
   service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at
   unspecified points. (RR)

   Radionavigation-Satellite Service. A radiodetermination-satellite
   service used for the purpose of radionavigation. This service may also
   include feeder links necessary for its operation. (RR)

   Radionavigation Service. A radiod-etermination service for the purpose
   of radionavigation. (RR)

   Radiosonde. An automatic radio transmitter in the meteorological aids
   service usually carried on an aircraft, free ballon, kite or parachute,
   and which transmits meteorological data. (RR)

   Radiotelegram. A telegram, originating in or intended for a mobile
   station or a mobile earth station transmitted on all or part of its
   route over the radiocommunication channels of the mobile service or of
   the mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Radiotelemetry. Telemetry by means of radio waves. (RR)

   Radiotelephone Call. A telephone call, originating in or intended for a
   mobile station or a mobile earth station, transmitted on all or part of
   its route over the radiocommunication channels of the mobile service or
   of the mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Radiotelex Call. A telex call, originating in or intended for a mobile
   station or a mobile earth station, transmitted on all or part of its
   route over the radiocommunication channels of the mobile service or the
   mobile-satellite service. (RR)

   Radio Waves or Hertzian Waves. Electromagnetic waves of frequencies
   arbitrarily lower than 3,000 GHz, propagated in space without
   aritificial guide. (RR)

   Reduced Carrier Single-Sideband Emission. A single-sideband emission in
   which the degree of carrier suppession enables the carrier to be
   reconstrituted and to be used for demodulation. (RR)

   Reference Frequency. A frequency having a fixed and specified position
   with respect to the assigned frequency. The displacement of this
   frequency with respect to the assigned frequency has the same absolute
   value and sign that the displacement of the characteristic frequency
   has with respect to the centre of the frequency band occupied by the
   emission. (RR)

   Reflecting Satellite. A satellite intended to reflect
   radiocommunication signals. (RR)

   Right-Hand (or Clockwise) Polarized Wave. An Elliptically or
   circularly-polarized wave, in which the electric field vector, observed
   in any fixed plane, normal to the direction of propagation, whilst
   looking in the direction of propagation, rotates with time in a
   right-hand or clockwise direction. (RR)

   Safety Service. Any radiocommunication service used permanently or
   temporarily for the safeguarding of human life and property. (RR)

   Satellite. A body which revolves around another body of preponderant
   mass and which has a motion primarily and permanently determined by the
   force of attraction of that other body. (RR)

   Satellite Link. A radio link between a transmitting earth station and a
   receiving earth station through one satellite. A satellite link
   comprises one up-link and one down-link. (RR)

   Satellite Network. A satellite system or a part of a satellite system,
   consisting of only one satellite and the cooperating earth stations.
   (RR)

   Satellite System. A space system using one or more artificial earth
   satellites. (RR)

   Secondary Radar. A radiodetermination system based on the comparison of
   reference signals with radio signals retransmitted from the position to
   be determined. (RR)

   Semi-Duplex Operation.4 A method which is simplex operation on one end
   of the circuit and duplex operation at the other. (RR)

   Simplex Operation.4 Operating method in which transmission is made
   possible alternatively in each direction of a telecommunication
   channel, for example, by means of manual control.

   4See footnote under Duplex Operation.

   Ship Earth Station. A mobile earth station in the maritime
   mobile-satellite service located on board ship. (RR)

   Ship Movement Service. A safety service in the maritime mobile service
   other than a port operations service, between coast stations and ship
   stations, or between ship stations, in which messages are restricted to
   those relating to the movement of ships. Messages which are of a public
   correspondence nature shall be excluded from this service. (RR)

   Ship's Emergency Transmitter. A ship's transmitter to be used
   exclusively on a distress frequency for distress, urgency or safety
   purposes. (RR)

   Ship Station. A mobile station in the maritime mobile service located
   on board a vessel which is not permanently moored, other than a
   survival craft station. (RR)

   Simplex Operation. Operating method in which transmission is made
   possible alternatively in each direction of a telecommunication
   channel, for example, by means of manual control.5 (RR)

   5(See footnote under Duplex Operations.)

   Single-Sideband Emission. An amplitude modulated emission with one
   sideband only. (RR)

   Software defined radio. A radio that includes a transmitter in which
   the operating parameters of frequency range, modulation type or maximum
   output power (either radiated or conducted), or the circumstances under
   which the transmitter operates in accordance with Commission rules, can
   be altered by making a change in software without making any changes to
   hardware components that affect the radio frequency emissions. In
   accordance with § 2.944 of this part, only radios in which the software
   is designed or expected to be modified by a party other than the
   manufacturer and would affect the above-listed operating parameters or
   circumstances under which the radio transmits must be certified as
   software defined radios.

   Spacecraft. A man-made vehicle which is intended to go beyond the major
   portion of the Earth's atmosphere. (RR)

   Space Operation Service. A radiocommunication service concerned
   exclusively with the operation of spacecraft, in particular space
   tracking, space telemetry, and space telecommand.

   Note: These functions will normally be provided within the service in
   which the space station is operating. (RR)

   Space Radiocommunication. Any radiocommunication involving the use of
   one or more space stations or the use of one or more reflecting
   satellites or other objects in space. (RR)

   Space Research Service. A radiocommunication service in which
   spacecraft or other objects in space are used for scientific or
   technological research purposes. (RR)

   Space Station. A station located on an object which is beyond, is
   intended to go beyond, or has been beyond, the major portion of the
   Earth's atmosphere. (RR)

   Space System. Any group of cooperating Earth stations and/or space
   stations employing space radiocommunication for specific purposes. (RR)

   Space Telecommand. The use of radiocommunication for the transmission
   of signals to a space station to initiate, modify or terminate
   functions of equipment on a space object, incuding the space station.
   (RR)

   Space Telemetry. The use of telemetry for transmission for a space
   station of results of measurements made in a spacecraft, including
   those relating to the functioning of the spacecraft. (RR)

   Space Tracking. Determination of the orbit, velocity or instanteneous
   position of an object in space by means of radiodetermination,
   excluding primary radar, for the purpose of following the movement of
   the object. (RR)

   Special Service. A radiocommunication service, not otherwise defined in
   this Section, carried on exclusively for specific needs of general
   utility, and not open to public correspondence. (RR)

   Spread Spectrum Systems. A spread spectrum system is an information
   bearing communications system in which: (1) Information is conveyed by
   modulation of a carrier by some conventional means, (2) the bandwidth
   is deliberately widened by means of a spreading function over that
   which would be needed to transmit the information alone. (In some
   spread spectrum systems, a portion of the information being conveyed by
   the system may be contained in the spreading function.)

   Spurious domain (of an emission): The frequency range beyond the
   out-of-band domain in which spurious emissions generally predominate.
   (RR)

   Spurious Emission. Emission on a frequency or frequencies which are
   outside the necessary bandwidth and the level of which may be reduced
   without affecting the corresponding transmission of information.
   Spurious emissions include harmonic emissions, parasitic emissions,
   intermodulation products and frequency conversion products, but exclude
   out-of-band emissions. (RR)

   Standard Frequency and Time Signal-Satellite Service. A
   radiocommunication service using space stations on earth satellites for
   the same purposes as those of the standard frequency and time signal
   service.

   Note: This service may also include feeder links necessary for its
   operation. (RR)

   Standard Frequency and Time Signal Service. A radiocommunication
   service for scientific, technical and other purposes, providing the
   transmission of specified frequencies, time signals, or both, of stated
   high precision, intended for general reception. (RR)

   Standard Frequency and Time Signal Station. A station in the standard
   frequency and time signal service. (RR)

   Station. One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of
   transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment,
   necessary at one location for carrying on a radiocommunication service,
   or the radio astronomy service.

   Note: Each station shall be classified by the service in which it
   operates permanently or temporarily. (RR)

   Suppressed Carrier Single-Sideband Emission. A single-sideband emission
   in which the carrier is virtually suppressed and not intended to be
   used for demodulation. (RR)

   Survival Craft Station. A mobile station in the maritime mobile service
   or the aeronautical mobile service intended solely for survival
   purposes and located on any lifeboat, life-raft or other survival
   equipment. (RR)

   Telecommand. The use of telecommunication for the transmission of
   signals to initiate, modify or terminate functions of equipment at a
   distance. (RR)

   Telecommunication. Any transmission, emission or reception of signs,
   signals, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by
   wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. (CS)

   Telegram. Written matter intended to be transmitted by telegraphy for
   delivery to the addressee. This term also includes radiotelegrams
   unless otherwise specified. (CS)

   Note: In this definition the term telegraphy has the same general
   meaning as defined in the Convention.

   Telegraphy.5 A form of telecommunication in which the transmitted
   information is intended to be recorded on arrival as a graphic
   document; the transmitted information may sometimes be presented in an
   alternative form or may be stored for subsequent use. (CS)

   5A graphic document records information in a permanent form and is
   capable of being filed and consulted; it may take the form of written
   or printed matter or of a fixed image.

   Telemetry. The use of telecommunication for automatically indicating or
   recording measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument.
   (RR)

   Telephony. A form of telecommunication primarily intended for the
   exchange of information in the form of speech. (CS)

   Television. A form of telecommunication for the transmission of
   transient images of fixed or moving objects. (RR)

   Terrestrial Radiocommunication. Any radiocommunication other than space
   radiocommunication or radio astronomy. (RR)

   Terrestrial Station. A station effecting terrestrial
   radiocommunication.

   Note: In these [international Radio] Regulations, unless otherwise
   stated, any station is a terrestrial station. (RR)

   Time Hopping Systems. A time hopping system is a spread spectrum system
   in which the period and duty cycle of a pulsed RF carrier are varied in
   a pseudorandom manner under the control of a coded sequence. Time
   hopping is often used effectively with frequency hopping to form a
   hybrid time-division, multiple-access (TDMA) spread spectrum system.

   Transponder. A transmitter-receiver facility the function of which is
   to transmit signals automatically when the proper interrogation is
   received. (FCC)

   Tropospheric Scatter. The propagation of radio waves by scattering as a
   result of irregularities or discontinuities in the physical properties
   of the troposphere. (RR)

   Unwanted Emissions. Consist of spurious emissions and out-of-band
   emissions. (RR)

   [ 49 FR 2368 , Jan. 19, 1984, as amended at  50 FR 25239 , June 18, 1985;
    51 FR 37399 , Oct. 22, 1986;  52 FR 7417 , Mar. 11, 1987;  54 FR 49980 ,
   Dec. 4, 1990;  55 FR 28761 , July 13, 1990;  56 FR 42703 , Aug. 29, 1991;
    58 FR 68058 , Dec. 23, 1993;  62 FR 26242 , May 13, 1997;  65 FR 60109 ,
   Oct. 10, 2000;  66 FR 50840 , Oct. 5, 2001;  68 FR 74330 , Dec. 23, 2003;
    70 FR 23039 , May 4, 2005;  70 FR 46583 , Aug. 10, 2005;  71 FR 15619 , Mar.
   29, 2006;  72 FR 31192 , June 6, 2007;  73 FR 25421 , May 6, 2008;  75 FR 62933 , Oct. 13, 2010;  78 FR 25161 , Apr. 29, 2013;  80 FR 38823 , July 7,
   2015]

   

Subpart B—Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies

   Source:  49 FR 2373 , Jan. 19, 1984, unless otherwise noted.

   


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